Geometrical Variations Management 4.0: towards next Generation Geometry Assurance
Benjamin Schleich, Kristina Wärmefjord, Rikard Söderberg, Sandro Wartzack

Product realization processes are undergoing radical change considering the increasing digitalization of manufacturing fostered by cyber- physical production systems, the internet of things, big data, cloud computing, and the advancing use of digital twins. These trends are subsumed under the term "industry 4.0" describing the vision of a digitally connected manufacturing environment. The contribution gives an overview of future challenges and potentials for next generation geometry assurance and geometrical variations management in the context of industry 4.0. Particularly, the focus is set on potentials and risks of increasingly available manufacturing data and the use of digital twins in geometrical variations management.

Benjamin Schleich is a Senior Engineering at the Institute of Engineering Design of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany and leader of the research groups "dimensional management" and "assistant systems". Dr. Schleich currently serves as a CIRP Research Affiliate and Co-Chair of the Special Interest Group on Robust Design of the Design Society. His research mainly focuses on computer-aided tolerancing, geometrical variations management, and digitalization in virtual and digital product development.

Kristina Wärmefjord is an Associate professor at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden. She is vice-director of Wingquist Laboratory for virtual product realization and deputy head of the Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers. Her research focus on inspection preparation and analysis of inspection data as well as different aspects of non-rigid statistical variation simulation, such as contact modeling and the effect of welding sequences. Her research is mainly done in close collaboration with the automotive and aerospace industry.

A Brief Analysis of Recent ISO Tolerancing Standards and Their Potential Impact on Digitization of Manufacturing
Edward P Morse, Craig M Shakarji, Vijay Srinivasan

The publication of the latest edition of ISO 1101 in 2017 is a landmark event in the development of ISO tolerancing standards. It represents an important milestone in the evolution of ISO tolerancing standards powered by a synergy between technological developments in tolerancing (for specification) and metrology (for verification). The external forces that caused this synergistic evolution stem from digitization of manufacturing (also variously called Smart Manufacturing, Cyber-Manufacturing, Cyber-Physical Production Systems, and Industrie 4.0). This paper provides a brief analysis of a new set of customer-facing ISO tolerancing standards which, along with their promises and challenges, will have a significant impact on digitization of manufacturing.

Edward Morse was awarded his PhD from Cornell University in January of 2000. His dissertation work was on the mathematical modeling of tolerancing for assembly. Currently, he is full professor at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. His research interests include large scale metrology, assembly modeling and analysis, machine tool metrology, uncertainty estimation and analysis, tolerance standards and modeling, and various aspects of computational metrology. He is a member of several ASME standards committees for tolerancing and metrology, and he is chair of the B89 division 4 for Coordinate Measuring Machines. He is also a Subject Matter Expert (SME) representing the United States in ISO Technical Committee 213 on Geometric Product Specification and Verification.

Information-rich surface metrology
Nicola Senin, Richard Leach

Information-rich metrology refers to the incorporation of any type of available information in the data acquisition and processing pipeline of a measurement process, in order to improve the efficiency and quality of the measurement. In this work, the information-rich metrology paradigm is explored as it is applied to the measurement and characterisation of surface topography. The advantages and challenges of introducing heterogeneous information sources in the surface characterisation pipeline are illustrated. Examples are provided about the incorporation of structured knowledge about a part nominal geometry, the manufacturing processes with their signature topographic features and set-up parameters, and the measurement instruments with their performance characteristics and behaviour in relation to the specific properties of the surfaces being measured. A wide array of surface metrology applications, ranging from product inspection, to surface classification, to defect identification and to the investigation of advanced manufacturing processes, is used to illustrate the information-rich paradigm.

Nicola Senin is associate professor of manufacturing processes and systems at the University of Perugia, Italy, and affiliate research fellow in the Manufacturing Metrology Team, Advanced Manufacturing Research Group at the University of Nottingham, UK. He is in the international advisory board of the IOP journal Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. He has over 80 publications in metrology and manufacturing. He is fellow of the EUSPEN (European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology) and AITEM (Italian Association of Manufacturing Engineers). His research interests cover the development of computational methods and algorithms for dimensional and surface metrology, to support research in additive, precision and, in general, advanced manufacturing processes.

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